Oil provided Saudi Arabia with economic prosperity and substantial political leverage internationally. Le prince d'Arabie Saoudite : [un grand roman de politique-fiction] by Joachim Reichenthal Print book: Fiction: French. [322] France authorized $18 billion in weapons sales to Saudi Arabia in 2015 alone. [69] It is common view that Midian designated a confederation of tribes, the sedentary element settled in the Hijaz while its nomadic affiliates pastured, and sometimes pillaged as far away land as Palestine. Schon um 1500 wurde der Wadi Hanifa kontrolliert und regierten die Sauds eines der bedeutendsten Fürstentümer in Zentralarabien. [491]), As of 2004[update], approximately half of the broadcast airtime of Saudi state television was devoted to religious issues. Bedouin poetry, known as nabaṭī, is still very popular. Milk production boasts a remarkably productive annual rate of 1,800 gallons per cow, one of the highest in the world. The migrants lack proper living condition, provision of food and water. [329] Human Rights Watch, in a 2008 report, noted that a criminal procedure code had been introduced for the first time in 2002, but it lacked some basic protections and, in any case, had been routinely ignored by judges. Bhutan | We must be seen to be a fair player in Saudi Arabia. [93] Ottoman degree of control over these lands varied over the next four centuries with the fluctuating strength or weakness of the Empire's central authority. [509], Five cultural sites in Saudi Arabia are designated as UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih);[510] the Turaif district in the city of Diriyah;[511] Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Mecca;[512] Al-Ahsa Oasis;[513] and Rock Art in the Hail Region. Mohammed Al-Jadaan said that the country will take “painful” measures and keep all options open to deal with the impact. Politically, the Midianite were described as having decentralized structure headed by five kings (Evi, Rekem, Tsur, Hur and Reba), the names appears to be toponyms of important Midianite settlements. [citation needed], Royal decrees are the other main source of law; but are referred to as regulations rather than laws because they are subordinate to the Sharia. Women do not have equal rights to men in the kingdom; the U.S. State Department considers Saudi Arabian government's discrimination against women a "significant problem" in Saudi Arabia and notes that women have few political rights due to the government's discriminatory policies. Page created - July 12, 2013. With the first phase of Saudization into effect, 70% of sales job are expected to be filled by Saudis. [549][550], According to a leading Saudi feminist and journalist, Wajeha al-Huwaider, "Saudi women are weak, no matter how high their status, even the 'pampered' ones among them, because they have no law to protect them from attack by anyone. Guetta's comments come as Saudi Arabia increasingly attracts big name western music acts to perform in the kingdom. Select from premium Arabie Saoudite Photos of the highest quality. This makes Saudi Arabia the best performing Middle Eastern, Arab and Muslim country. Falconry, another traditional pursuit, is still practiced. Subject to this suzerainty, Arabia was ruled by a patchwork of tribal rulers,[101][102] with the Sharif of Mecca having pre-eminence and ruling the Hejaz. Oil prices quadrupled. According to the World Bank, approximately 14.3 million people visited Saudi Arabia in 2012, making it the world's 19th-most-visited country. [80] King Fahd allowed American and coalition troops to be stationed in Saudi Arabia. With the advent of oil-wealth in the 20th century came exposure to outside influences, such as Western housing styles, furnishings, and clothes. (The CIA Factbook estimated that as of 2013[update] foreign nationals living in Saudi Arabia made up about 21% of the population. [247] As a result, Saudi Arabia has, to some extent, distanced itself from the US and, for example, refused to support or to participate in the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. [142] As mentioned earlier, in recent years there have been limited steps to widen political participation such as the establishment of the Consultative Council in the early 1990s and the National Dialogue Forum in 2003. [138] No political parties or national elections are permitted. [590] The school system is composed of elementary, intermediate, and secondary schools. The three main regional variants spoken by Saudis are Hejazi Arabic (about 6 million speakers[430]), Najdi Arabic (about 8 million speakers[431]), and Gulf Arabic (about 0.2 million speakers[432]). [407], Water supply and sanitation in Saudi Arabia is characterized by significant investments in seawater desalination, water distribution, sewerage and wastewater treatment leading to a substantial increase in access to drinking water and sanitation over the past decades. The earliest substantiated evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree is from the 15th century, in the Sufi monasteries of Arabia. the start of each lunar month determined not ahead of time by astronomical calculation, but only after the crescent moon is sighted by the proper religious authorities. No lists yet! [181] However, this changed following the seizure of the Grand Mosque in Mecca in 1979 by Islamist radicals. The annual King's Camel Race, begun in 1974, is one of the sport's most important contests and attracts animals and riders from throughout the region. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Prince Sultan Air Base. Average summer temperatures are around 45 °C (113 °F), but can be as high as 54 °C (129 °F). Nach der Anerkennung der Saudis durch das Vereinigte Königreich (1915) konnte er nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg die Vereinigung der Beduinen im zentralen Arabien abschließen. [464], On 13 August 2020, Human Rights Watch reported dozens of Euthopian migrants who had been forcibly expelled by Houthi forces, under the pretext of COVID-19 measures, were killed and detained by Saudi border guards. [528] [565] As of 2018, two women hold cabinet positions in the Saudi government: Dr Tamadur bint Youssef Al Ramah, who was appointed deputy labor minister that year; and Norah bint Abdallah Al Faiz, who became deputy minister of education in charge of women's affairs in 2009. The Al Jouf farms are located in Sakaka, a city in the north-western part of Saudi Arabia, which is a deeply-rooted in history. [591] Classes are segregated by sex. A joint statement was issued by Britain, France and Germany also demanding a "credible investigation to establish the truth about what happened, and — if relevant — to identify those bearing responsibility for the disappearance of Jamal Khashoggi, and ensure that they are held to account. Women were not allowed to take part in the poll. Jahrhundert zurückverfolgen. Le Prince d'Arabie saoudite by Joachim Reichenthal, unknown edition, Download for print-disabled [579][580], Other domestic reforms include significant regulations restricting the powers of the religious police and establishing a national entertainment authority that has hosted comedy shows, pro wrestling events, and monster truck rallies. Thailand | In the 1994 FIFA World Cup under the leadership of Jorge Solari, Saudi Arabia beat both Belgium and Morocco in the group stage before falling to defeat Sweden in the round of 16. [16] Following his death in 632, his followers rapidly expanded the territory under Muslim rule beyond Arabia, conquering huge and unprecedented swathes of territory (from the Iberian Peninsula in west to modern day Pakistan in east) in a matter of decades. [60] Aside from horses, animals such as sheep, goats, dogs, in particular of the Saluki race, ostriches, falcons and fish were discovered in the form of stone statues and rock engravings. Philippinen | [183], The ulema have historically been led by the Al ash-Sheikh,[184] the country's leading religious family. ", "Saudi Arabia Imposes Death Sentence for Bible Smuggling", Saudi Arabia declares all atheists are terrorists in new law to crack down on political dissidents, "Saudi Arabia: 2 Years Behind Bars on Apostasy Accusation", 'The destruction of Mecca: Saudi hardliners are wiping out their own heritage', 'Islamic heritage lost as Makkah modernises', 'Shame of the House of Saud: Shadows over Mecca', Destruction of Islamic Architectural Heritage in Saudi Arabia: A Wake-up Call, "Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih)", "Al-Ahsa Oasis, an Evolving Cultural Landscape", "Rock Art in the Hail Region of Saudi Arabia", KSA Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List (4), Saudi Arabia to Spend $1Bn On Cultural Heritage, Destruction du patrimoine : une résolution historique du Conseil de Sécurité, "I will return Saudi Arabia to moderate Islam, says crown prince", "Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's dynamic year of reform", "Catholic cardinal meets Saudi King in historic visit to Riyadh", "Saudi Arabia commits US$25 million to UNESCO for the protection of heritage", "Traditional dress of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia", "Saudi Arabia allows concerts—even country music", "Mohammed Abdu to perform live in Riyadh", "Rise of Saudi Prince Shatters Decades of Royal Tradition", "Saudi Arabia to reopen public cinemas for the first time in 35 years", "Saudi Arabia to Debut at Cannes With Its First National Pavilion", "Saudi Arabia and Lebanon are Set to Make Their Venice Biennale Debut", "David Guetta on his historic Saudi Arabia performance", "Saudi Arabian Slam Dunk, Fall 1997, Winter 1998, Volume 14, Number 4, Saudi Arabia", "Saudi women show greater interest in sports and games", "Men Basketball Asia Championship 1999 Fukuoka (JPN)- 28.08–05.09 Winner China", "Saudi women push for right to play sports – Sport", "Saudi Arabia opens first sports centre for women", "Saudi government sanctions sports in some girls' schools", "Saudi Arabia: No women on Asian Games Team", "Saudi Arabia to let women into sports stadiums", "Sportswashing: how Saudi Arabia lobbies the US's largest sports bodies", "Reforms Under Veil: Saudi's First Women Wrestling Battled in Bodysuits", "Saudi Arabia Embraces Western Sports to Rehabilitate Global Image", "Two Years of WWE in Saudi Arabia and Growing Resistance of Superstars", "F1 risks human rights wrath over first Saudi Arabian race", "Saudi women no longer need male guardian consents to receive services", "Saudi Arabia to let women work and study without man's permission", "Saudi Writer and Journalist Wajeha Al-Huwaider Fights for Women's Rights", Saudi women no longer confined to their conventional roles, Age at First Marriage, Female – All Countries, "Saudi Youth: Unveiling the Force for Change", 'Top Saudi cleric: OK for young girls to wed', "Saudi Human Rights Commission Tackles Child Marriages", "Women constitute 13% of Saudi workforce: stats agency", "Physical Activity and Health Beliefs among Saudi Women", "Ideological and ownership trends in the saudi media", "Saudi women rise up after years of absence", "Saudi stock exchange appoints first female chair", "Saudi Arabia just appointed a female deputy minister", "Women in Saudi Arabia to vote and run in elections", "Camera Snapshots: Media in the Service of King Abdullah", "Saudi Arabia's women vote in election for first time", "Saudi Arabia cabinet approves domestic abuse ban", "Saudi Arabia passes law criminalizing domestic abuse", "Saudi Arabia cabinet passes ban on domestic violence", "Saudi Stock Exchange appoints first female chief in history of the kingdom", "Prince Mohammed bin Salman announces Saudi plans for largest entertainment city", "World-class entertainment park coming up in Al-Qiddiya", "Saudi King issues decree allowing women to drive", "Saudi women to start own business without male permission", "Divorced Saudi women win right to get custody of children", "Saudi Arabia brings back movie theaters — and 'staggering' demand is expected", "Mohammed bin Salman's reforms in Saudi Arabia could benefit us all", "Saudi Arabia to allow adult women to travel, register divorce", "Saudi Arabian women finally allowed to hold passports and travel independently", "Saudi Arabia Invites Tourists: What You Need to Know", "Saudi Arabia Grants Free 'Events Only' Visas for UAE, Bahrain, Kuwait Expats", "Saudi Prince's Year of Prestige Is Unraveling in Front of Him", "Saudi Arabia Looks at 'Painful' Measures, Deep Spending Cuts", "Newcastle United takeover deal worth £300m close", "19 Saudi universities among top 100 in the Arab world", "ARWU World University Rankings 2018 | Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018 | Top 500 universities | Shanghai Ranking – 2018", "World University Rankings – 2018 | Saudi Arabia Universities in Top 500 universities | Academic Ranking of World Universities – 2018 | Shanghai Ranking – 2018", "Saudi Arabia's Education Reforms Emphasize Training for Jobs", "Saudi school lessons in UK concern government", "This medieval Saudi education system must be reformed", "Secondary School Studies Plan 1438 Hijri", SR9 billion Tatweer project set to transform education, "Saudi Arabia most improved economy for business", "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) – Saudi Arabia | Data", Key Development Forecasts for Saudi Arabia, Council of Economic and Development Affairs, Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (central bank), Union of Arab National Olympic Committees, Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Saudi_Arabia&oldid=994567159, Arabic-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, States and territories established in 1932, Member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council, Pages with login required 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The enforcement of the anti-corruption laws is selective and public officials engage in corruption with impunity. WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Osama bin Laden was a Saudi citizen (until stripped of his citizenship in 1994) and was responsible for the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in East Africa and the 2000 USS Cole bombing near the port of Aden, Yemen. Although now extremely wealthy, Saudi Arabia's economy was near stagnant. [144] In many ways the approach to government differs little from the traditional system of tribal rule. Allerdings gab es andauernde Machtkämpfe innerhalb des Clans, die erst nach 1735 unter Muhammad ibn Saud beigelegt werden konnten. [155], The royal family is politically divided by factions based on clan loyalties, personal ambitions and ideological differences. In January 2020, several other WWE superstars casted doubt over visiting Saudi, following the heightened tensions in Middle East due to assassination of Qassem Soleimani. [492], "Fierce religious resistance" had to be overcome to permit such innovations as paper money (in 1951), female education (1964), and television (1965) and the abolition of slavery (1962). "[390] The Tadawul All Share Index (TASI) of the Saudi stock exchange peaked at 16,712.64 in 2005, and closed at 8,535.60, at the end of 2013. [104] With the aid of the Ikhwan, Ibn Saud captured Al-Ahsa from the Ottomans in 1913. Fahd continued to develop close relations with the United States and increased the purchase of American and British military equipment. [395] The Saudi state discourages calling attention to or complaining about poverty. However, the private sector still remains hugely dominated by foreigners. The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is widespread.[142]. [66] The capital of Midian was Qurayyah,[67] it consists of a large fortified citadel encompassing 35 hectares and below it lies a walled settlement of 15 hectares. [149] The key ministries are generally reserved for the royal family,[137] as are the 13 regional governorships. [599][600] The Saudi religious studies curriculum is taught outside the Kingdom via Saudi-linked madrasah, schools, and clubs throughout the world. The strategy is being viewed as a method of sportswashing following the chaos spread across Yemen since 4 years. [302] Indeed, Osama bin Laden and 15 out of the 19 9/11 hijackers were from Saudi Arabia;[303] in ISIL-occupied Raqqa, in mid-2014, all 12 judges were Saudi. … They were beaten, tortured and electrocuted. As of 2012[update] about 80% of Saudis live in urban metropolitan areas—specifically Riyadh, Jeddah, or Dammam. [520], In March 2018, the Crown Prince met the Archbishop of Canterbury during a visit to the UK, pledging to promote interfaith dialogue. [608] [116], In 1980, Saudi Arabia bought out the American interests in Aramco. Sri Lanka | [145], The rule of the Al Saud faces political opposition from four sources: Sunni Islamist activism; liberal critics; the Shi'ite minority—particularly in the Eastern Province; and long-standing tribal and regionalist particularistic opponents (for example in the Hejaz). On 24 August 2017, the Kingdom signed a memorandum of understanding with China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) to explore and assess uranium[294] On 4 August 2020, a report claimed that Saudi Arabia has constructed a facility in the desert near Al-Ula for extracting uranium yellowcake from uranium ore with the help of China. Saudi Arabia has since been a totalitarian absolute monarchy, effectively a hereditary dictatorship governed along Islamist lines. Major imports in 2010–14 included 45 combat aircraft from the UK, 38 combat helicopters from the US, four tanker aircraft from Spain and over 600 armoured vehicles from Canada. [314], Spending on defense and security has increased significantly since the mid-1990s and was about US$78.4 billion, as of 2019. [76], The Lihyanites fell into the hands of the Nabataeans around 65 BC upon their seizure of Hegra then marching to Tayma, and to their capital Dedan in 9 BC. What people are saying - Write a review. [604], The approach taken in the Saudi education system has been accused of encouraging Islamic terrorism, leading to reform efforts. The State of Lihyan: A New Perspective – p. 192, Rohmer, J. The relations have the potential of evolving into a crisis at any moment. It also aims to create an education system which will provide a more secular and vocationally based training. [405] The Al Jouf region has millions of olive trees and the expected number is expected to go up to 20 million trees soon. September 1932 wurde das Königreich Saudi-Arabien proklamiert. [406], Consuming non-renewable groundwater resulted in the loss of an estimated four fifths of the total groundwater reserves by 2012. [121], Islamism was not the only source of hostility to the government. Mit der Entdeckung großer Erdöl­vorkommen 1938 begann eine schnelle wirtschaftliche Entwicklung des Landes. Islamic dietary laws are enforced: pork is not allowed and other animals are slaughtered in accordance with halal. However, with King Abdullah's reforms from 2005, some cinemas have re-opened,[525] including one in KAUST. L'Arabie Saoudite est un des trois seuls pays à avoir reconnu officiellement le régime taliban. [63], By the late Bronze Age, a historically recorded people and land (Midian and the Midianites) in the north-western portion of Saudi Arabia are well-documented in the Bible. [300], The relations with the U.S. became strained following 9/11 terror attacks. From the 18th century onward, Wahhabi fundamentalism discouraged artistic development inconsistent with its teaching. Saudi Arabia is a major exporter of fruits and vegetables to its neighbors. As in other Arab countries of the Arabian Peninsula, machbūs (kabsa), a rice dish with lamb, chicken, fish or shrimp, is among the national dishes as well as the dish mandi (food). In February 2009, Abdullah announced a series of governmental changes to the judiciary, armed forces, and various ministries to modernize these institutions including the replacement of senior appointees in the judiciary and the Mutaween (religious police) with more moderate individuals and the appointment of the country's first female deputy minister. "[283], The US expects its Gulf allies involved in the coalition in Yemen to put in more efforts and address the rising concerns about the millions that have been pushed to the brink of famine. However, the large influx of foreign workers in Saudi Arabia in the oil industry increased the pre-existing propensity for xenophobia. [173] Saudi Arabia has undergone a process of political and social reform, such as to increase public transparency and good governance. [593] The latest list of Academic Ranking of World Universities 2018, ranked two Saudi universities, King Abdulaziz University and King Saud University, among the top 150 universities in the World. [180] The Al ash-Sheikh are the descendants of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the 18th-century founder of the Wahhabi form of Sunni Islam which is today dominant in Saudi Arabia. [285] The famine in Yemen is the direct result of the Saudi-led intervention and blockade of the rebel-held area. [605][606] Following the 9/11 attacks, the government aimed to tackle the twin problems of encouraging extremism and the inadequacy of the country's university education for a modern economy, by slowly modernising the education system through the "Tatweer" reform program. [161] In a country that is said to "belong" to the royal family and is named for them,[53] the lines between state assets and the personal wealth of senior princes are blurred. Rosie Cherie: Added Make your life worthwhile to the list. Afrika | Israel | [546] Polygamy is permitted for men,[552] and men have a unilateral right to divorce their wives (talaq) without needing any legal justification. [420] Hejaz is the most populated region in Saudi Arabia. In the winter the temperature rarely drops below 0 °C (32 °F). At Jizan in the country's well-watered southwest, the Al-Hikmah Research Station is producing tropical fruits including pineapples, paw-paws, bananas, mangoes and guavas. | [277] In early 2014 relations with Qatar became strained over its support for the Muslim Brotherhood, and Saudi Arabia's belief that Qatar was interfering in its affairs. [279], Saudi Arabia halted new trade and investment dealings with Canada and suspended diplomatic ties in a dramatic escalation of a dispute over the kingdom's arrest of women's rights activist Samar Badawi on 6 August 2018. Die Dynastie der Saud (arabisch آل سعود Al Sa'ud, DMG Āl Saʿūd) ist eine seit etwa 1735 existierende arabische Dynastie auf der Arabischen Halbinsel. Vereinigte Arabische Emirate | Saudi Arabia is Britain's largest arms customer, with more than £4.6 billion worth of arms bought since the start of Saudi-led coalition in Yemen. President of the International Rescue Committee David Miliband called the US announcement as "the most significant breakthrough in the war in Yemen for four years". Homosexual acts are punishable by flogging or death. [312][313] The SANG is not a reserve but a fully operational front-line force, and originated out of Ibn Saud's tribal military-religious force, the Ikhwan. "[305] Former CIA director James Woolsey described it as "the soil in which Al-Qaeda and its sister terrorist organizations are flourishing. It started as a Sheikdom of Dedan, which developed into the Kingdom of Lihyan tribe. [554] With regard to the law of inheritance, the Quran specifies that fixed portions of the deceased's estate must be left to the Qur'anic heirs[555] and generally, female heirs receive half the portion of male heirs. Beispiele: [1] Riyad est la capitale de l’Arabie saoudite. [178] The pact, which persists to this day,[187] is based on the Al Saud maintaining the Al ash-Sheikh's authority in religious matters and upholding and propagating Wahhabi doctrine. Die Ursprünge der Saud-Dynastie lassen sich bis ins 15. In the early 7th century, the Islamic prophet Muhammad united the population of Arabia and created a single Islamic religious polity. )** | [347], In April 2020, the Saudi Supreme Court stated under a royal decree by King Salman that minors who commit crimes will no longer face the death sentence, but will be sentenced to a maximum of ten years of imprisonment in a juvenile detention facility. With the help of the Ikhwan, the Kingdom of Hejaz was conquered in 1924–25 and on 10 January 1926, Ibn Saud declared himself King of Hejaz. [224] The two main allegations are that, by its nature, Wahhabism encourages intolerance and promotes terrorism. However, his authority was hindered by conflict with Fahd's full brothers (known, with Fahd, as the "Sudairi Seven"). Saudi Arabia is one of just three countries which officially supported the Taliban regime. Saudi-US relations took an ugly turn on 14 October 2018, when Trump promised "severe punishment" if the royal court was responsible for Khashoggis’ death. [97] This alliance formed in the 18th century provided the ideological impetus to Saudi expansion and remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today. Page created - February 19, 2011. [484]), Until 2016, the kingdom used the lunar Islamic calendar, not the international Gregorian calendar,[485] but in 2016 the kingdom announced its switch to the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes. [211][212] [82] In 1077–1078, an Arab Sheikh named Abdullah bin Ali Al Uyuni defeated the Qarmatians in Bahrain and al-Hasa with the help of the Great Seljuq Empire and founded the Uyunid dynasty. It would be the first time the Gulf nation would be hosting an F1 race as one of 23 grand prix in the busiest calendar ever. Page Transparency See More. Businesses are closed three or four times a day[488] for 30 to 45 minutes during business hours while employees and customers are sent off to pray. [215], Saudi Arabia joined the UN in 1945[49][216] and is a founding member of the Arab League, Gulf Cooperation Council, Muslim World League, and the Organization of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation). The rate of literacy is 97.1% among males and is about 92.71% among females (2017). However, it attracted controversy when many of its high profile attendees, including Armie Hammer, Joan Smalls and Wilmer Valderrama, were criticized for engaging in "image rehab" for the kingdom, overlooking the continued human rights abuses in the country. [481][482] Prince Bandar bin Sultan, Saudi ambassador to the United States, stated: "The time is not far off in the Middle East when it will be literally 'God help the Shia'. [169][170] Prince Bandar denied the allegations. The confidential report obtained by the media house stated that the Kingdom was assisted by Chinese geologists to produce over 90,000 tonnes of uranium from three major deposits in the centre and northwest of Saudi, near the NEOM megacity development. [citation needed], In November 2017, hunting scenes showing images of most likely domesticated dogs, resembling the Canaan dog, wearing leashes were discovered in Shuwaymis, a hilly region of northwestern Saudi Arabia. The country exports wheat, dates, dairy products, eggs, fish, poultry, fruits, vegetables and flowers to markets around the world.