[279], The automotive industry in Turkey is sizeable, and produced over 1.3 million motor vehicles in 2015, ranking as the 14th largest producer in the world. [68] From the 16th to the early 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also fought twelve wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. The first Turkish-made film was a documentary entitled Ayastefanos'taki Rus Abidesinin Yıkılışı (Demolition of the Russian Monument at San Stefano), directed by Fuat Uzkınay and completed in 1914. Turkish directors like Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Yılmaz Güney and Ferzan Özpetek won numerous international awards such as the Palme d'Or and Golden Bear. The Turkish government has granted Turkish citizenship to refugees who have joined the Syrian National Army. Chicken in: Courtry Have your favorite Chicken delivered with Uber Eats in your city, Courtry. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools.[344]. Average life expectancy is 78.6 years (75.9 for males and 81.3 for females), compared with the EU average of 81 years. [394], The role of religion in public life has been the source of debate since the Republic was established on a secular basis, and in recent years with the coming to prominence of Islamist parties. [142][143][144] Many elements in the constitutional reform package that was approved with the referendum in 2017 have increased concerns in the European Union regarding democracy and the separation of powers in Turkey. [274] Snow may remain at least 120 days of the year. Following the restoration of constitutional monarchy with the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, theatrical activities increased and social problems began to be reflected at the theatre as well as in historical plays. [280] Turkish shipyards are highly regarded both for the production of chemical and oil tankers up to 10,000 dwt and also for their mega yachts. [25][26] It is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF, and the World Bank, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC, and G20. The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, making sultans Mehmed V and Mehmed VI largely symbolic figureheads with no real political power. [11], The three "Non-Muslim" minority groups recognised in the Treaty of Lausanne were Armenians, Greeks and Jews. The Turkish Five (Turkish: Türk Beşleri) is a name used by some authors to identify the five pioneers of Western classical music in Turkey, namely Ahmed Adnan Saygun, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Cemal Reşit Rey, Hasan Ferit Alnar and Necil Kazım Akses. [297] Fossil fuel subsidies were around 0.2% of GDP for the first two decades of the 21st century,[298][299] and are higher than clean energy subsidies. [195][196] In 2020, Turkey openly intervened in Libya at the request of the GNA. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature, Volume 23", "Ottoman/Turkish Visions of the Nation, 1860–1950", "An Ottoman warning for indebted America", "Collapse of the Ottoman Empire, 1918–1920", "Why Turkey hasn't forgotten about the First World War", "ECHR: Why Turkey won't talk about the Armenian genocide", "Creating a Modern 'Zone of Genocide': The Impact of Nation- and State-Formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878–1923", "Turkey holds first election that allows women to vote", "Growth in United Nations membership (1945–2005)", "Turkish Military Leaders Held for Role in '97 Coup", "U.S. Department of State - Bureau of Counterterrorism: Foreign Terrorist Organizations", "Council of the European Union: Council Decision (CFSP) 2019/1341 of 8 August 2019 updating the list of persons, groups and entities subject to Articles 2, 3 and 4 of Common Position 2001/931/CFSP on the application of specific measures to combat terrorism", Timeline: Kurdish militant group PKK's three-decade war with Turkey, "Turkish forces kill 32 Kurdish militants in bloody weekend as conflict escalates", "Interview with European Commission President Jose Manuel Barroso on BBC Sunday AM", "What's driving unrest and protests in Turkey? Of course Greg Tremblay continues to make it all believable. Title: Leaning Into the Fall Author: The Art of Three by Racheline Maltese & Erin McRae ~ Book Review by Sadie, Hopeless Romantic by Francis Gideon ~ Book Review by Sadie, The King and The Criminal by Charlotte Ashe ~ Book Review by Sadie, Beneath The Stars by Lynn Charles ~ Book Review by Sadie, Home Fires by Kate Sherwood ~ Book Review by Teresa, At Attention by Annabeth Albert ~ Book Review by Caroline, Imago by N.R. Notable players, directors and playwrights of Turkish theatre include Muhsin Ertuğrul, Haldun Taner, Aziz Nesin, Gülriz Sururi, Yıldız Kenter, Müşfik Kenter, Haldun Dormen, Sadri Alışık, Çolpan İlhan, Münir Özkul, Adile Naşit, Erol Günaydın, Gazanfer Özcan, Nejat Uygur, Genco Erkal, Metin Serezli, Nevra Serezli, Levent Kırca, Zeki Alasya, Metin Akpınar, Müjdat Gezen, Ferhan Şensoy, among others. [242] 160 journalists have been imprisoned. First purchase of 1 case. Like the men's team, the women's basketball team is one of the most successful at the Mediterranean Games. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.[258]. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. So please keep coming back to check on updates Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1930s drive for Westernization. [395] For many decades, the wearing of the Hijab was banned in schools and government buildings because it was viewed as a symbol of political Islam. [262] Anatolia is the homeland of many plants that have been cultivated for food since the advent of agriculture, and the wild ancestors of many plants that now provide staples for humankind still grow in Turkey. [445] Basic education in Turkey is said to lag behind other OECD countries, with significant differences between high and low performers. The Bosphorus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. Only complaint, it was too short. [306] Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate. [13][15] The Seljuk Turks began migrating in the 11th century, and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. The studios the artists worked in were called nakkaşhane. A youth choir director must write the title song for the Christmas Eve show, but she becomes distracted when a gifted boy joins her choir unbeknownst to his widowed father, Greg… Please give them a warm welcome. [510] Renowned Turkish freestyle and Greco-Roman wrestlers who won international competitions include Yaşar Doğu, Celal Atik, Mahmut Atalay, Hamza Yerlikaya, Rıza Kayaalp and Taha Akgül. During the war, the empire's Armenians were deported to Syria as part of the Armenian Genocide. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic until the Hellenistic period. Turkish Armed Forces contribute military personnel to the International Security Assistance Force, Kosovo Force, Eurocorps and EU Battlegroups. [14], Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC,[30] while Çatalhöyük is a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC. According to the 2011 estimate, the population is increasing by 1.35 percent each year. May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the driest.[274]. In the 21st century some reforms have taken place to improve the cultural rights of ethnic minorities in Turkey, such as the establishment of TRT Kurdî, TRT Arabi and TRT Avaz by the TRT. [136] Turkey under Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and the AKP has been described as becoming increasingly authoritarian. Despite the increasingly prominent European presence, the Ottoman Empire's trade with the east continued to flourish until the second half of the 18th century.[63]. [110][111] Today, EU membership is considered as a state policy and a strategic target by Turkey. "Ozcan Ozan's Sultan's Kitchen deliciously captures the flavors of Turkish cooking traditions…Professionals and home cooks alike will find lots of savory ideas within the pages of this book to expand their repertoire of prized Mediterranean recipes." [325] İstanbul Airport is planned to be the largest airport in the world, with a capacity to serve 150 million passengers a year. ", "Turkey: International Religious Freedom Report 2007", "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Turkey : Alevis", "Erdogan, Iran, Syrian Alawites, and Turkish Alevis", "Turkey's Alevi minority fear future under Erdogan presidency", "Sectarian Tension Builds in Turkey as Erdogan Crackdown Widens", Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, "The politics of population in a nation-building process: emigration of non-Muslims from Turkey", "Religious Composition by Country, 2010-2050", "Christen in der islamischen Welt – Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte", "Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom", "An Overview of the History of the Jews in Turkey", "Beyond the Straight Path: Obstacles and Progress for Atheism in Turkey", "The first Atheist Association in Turkey is founded", "Why so many Turks are losing faith in Islam", "Atheism grows in Turkey as Recep Tayyip Erdogan urges Islam | DW | 09.01.2019", "The number of atheists increasing in Turkey", "Turkey's Education Reform Bill Is About Playing Politics With Pedagogy", "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2012", "Improving The Quality And Equity of Basic Education in Turkey Challenges And Options", "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)", "Guide for Foreign Students planning Education in Turkey", "Turkish universities latest domino in Erdogan's path", "Turkey drops evolution and starts teaching jihad instead", "UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists", "Turks – A Journey of a Thousand Years: 600–1600", "A list of the buildings designed by Mimar Sinan", "The Search for Identity: 1st National Architecture Movement", "Turkish Architecture in the Republican Period", "XIX. During its long history, the art and craft of the woven carpet has integrated different cultural traditions. During the first six decades of the republic, between 1923 and 1983, Turkey generally adhered to a quasi-statist approach with strict government planning of the budget and government-imposed limitations over foreign trade, flow of foreign currency, foreign direct investment and private sector participation in certain fields (such as broadcasting, telecommunications, energy, mining, etc.). Restaurants near Le Cozy, Plaisir on Tripadvisor: Find traveler reviews and candid photos of dining near Le Cozy in Plaisir, France. [460], Carpet weaving is a traditional art from pre-Islamic times. Renowned Turkish journalists who were murdered for their opinions include Abdi İpekçi (1929–1979, editor-in-chief of Milliyet); Çetin Emeç (1935–1990, chief columnist and coordinator of Hürriyet); Uğur Mumcu (1942–1993, columnist and investigative journalist of Cumhuriyet); and Hrant Dink (1954–2007, founder and editor-in-chief of Agos). [126][127] A decentralisation program for Turkey has been a topic of discussion in the country's academics, politics and the broader public.[128][129]. ", "Cyprus: EU 'appeasement' of Turkey in exploration row will go nowhere", "Turkey threatens Greece over disputed Mediterranean territorial claims", "Turkish Armed Forces Defense Organization", "Deniz Kuvvetlerinden TCG Trakya açıklaması", United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs – Asylum and Migration Division, "EBCO: European Bureau for Conscientious Objection", "Financial and Economic Data Relating to NATO Defence", "Contribution of Turkish Armed Forces to Peace Support Operations", "Turkey finalizes military training base in Somalia", "Turkey trains Kurdish peshmerga forces in fight against Islamic State", "Seeing shared threats, Turkey sets up military base in Qatar", "Turkey to open its largest military base in Somalia", "The World's Most And Least Peaceful Countries in 2016", "European Court of Human Rights: Turkey Ranks First in Violations in between 1959–2011", "Human rights in Turkey: still a long way to go to meet accession criteria", "Lice'nin Fis köyünde PKK'nın kuruluşunu kutladılar", "Turkish lecturer to be put on trial for posing exam question on PKK leader", "The European Court of Human Rights: Case of Benzer and others v. Turkey", "Police arrest and assistance of a lawyer", "Justice Comes from European Court for a Kurdish Journalist", Turkish parliament moves to strip lawmakers' immunity from prosecution, "Turkey orders 70 army officers detained over Gulen links – CNN Turk", "Turkey arrests German for spreading Kurdish propaganda: Anadolu", Erdogan Renews Putsch Purge With Targets in Media, Academia, From soldiers to midwives, Turkey dismisses 15,000 more after coup bid, Turkish court orders release of journalists during their trial, "Turkey's crackdown propels number of journalists in jail worldwide to record high", "Russia, China and Turkey top yearly list of music freedom violations", "Rights violations, terror ops threaten Turkey's democratic institutions: PACE", "Turkey faces scrutiny over alleged use of chemical weapons on children in Syria", "Turkey accused of war crimes after suspected white phosphorus use against civilian Kurds in Syria", "Chemical weapons watchdog: Turkey did not use white phosphorus in Syria", "Damning evidence of war crimes by Turkish forces and allies in Syria", Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, Status, conservation and management of large carnivores in Turkey, "Diyarbakır'da öldürülen leopar İran Parsı çıktı", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2020", "Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets", "About Best-Selling Home Appliance Brand Beko UK", "Panoramic view of the modern skyline of Istanbul's European side, with the skyscrapers of Levent at the center and the Bosphorus Bridge (1973) at right", "View of the skyscrapers in Levent from Sporcular Park", "Istanbul remains motoring power of Turkey's economy", "Turkey: Agriculture and Rural Development", "Religious Women in Turkey Have Been Left Out of Emancipation Movement", "M&A Encumbered Risks Damping Hot Money Bond Party: Turkey Credit", "How to ruin a country's economy: AKP's 15 year long order of plunder and depredation in Turkey", "Turkey's external debt stock reaches $453.2B", "Turkey's current account deficit at $5.4 billion in April", "WIND VS COAL POWER IN TURKEY/SOLAR PV VS COAL IN TURKEY", "Coronavirus poses threat to climate action, says watchdog", "Energy pricing and non-market flows in Turkey's energy sector", "Big nations aid fossil fuels more than clean energies amid pandemic, researchers find", "Turkey Bets on EVs with the Pininfarina-Designed TOGG", "Growth and economic crises in Turkey: leaving behind a turbulent past? ", "Turkey rounds up thousands of suspected participants in coup attempt", "Pence heads to Turkey as Erdogan rejects calls for ceasefire in Syria", "Full Text: Memorandum of Understanding between Turkey and Russia on northern Syria", "Turkey not resuming military operation in northeast Syria: security source", "General Structure of Turkish Public Administration", "Ministry of Internal Affairs: Administrative Units in Turkey", "The Turkish Constitution and the Kurdish Question", "HDP arrests pose grave risks for Turkey's future", "Europeanization and the dilemma of decentralization: centre–local relations in Turkey", "BDP's decentralization proposal debated in Turkey", "The principle of decentralization in the new constitution", "Recep Tayyip the First: Erdogan inaugurates a new political era in Turkey", "Turkey elections: How powerful will the next Turkish president be? [497][498] Beşiktaş won the 2011–12 FIBA EuroChallenge,[499] and Galatasaray won the 2015–16 Eurocup. [424] The drop was the result of events that had a significant impact on the country's demographic structure, such as the Armenian Genocide, the population exchange between Greece and Turkey[425] and the emigration of Christians that began in the late 19th century and gained pace in the first quarter of the 20th century. Title: Angels of Istanbul Author: Alex. After fighting as part of the United Nations forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Performance 5 out of 5 stars. Traces of Byzantine design can be detected; Turkic peoples migrating from Central Asia, as well as Armenian people, Caucasian and Kurdish tribes either living in, or migrating to Anatolia, brought with them their traditional designs. [330] The Bosphorus Bridge (1973), Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge (1988) and Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge (2016) are the three suspension bridges connecting the European and Asian shores of the Bosphorus strait. Greg is related to Gregory E Tremblay and Zachary Tremblay as well as 1 additional person. Remaining challenges include the need to further increase wastewater treatment, to reduce the high level of non-revenue water hovering around 50% and to expand access to adequate sanitation in rural areas. [291], Foreign direct investment (FDI) was $8.3 billion in 2012, a figure expected to rise to $15 billion in 2013. The disciples were first called Christians at Antioch", "The Encyclopædia Britannica: Latest Edition. [244][245] Many journalists have been arrested using charges of "terrorism" and "anti-state activities" such as the Ergenekon and Balyoz cases, while thousands have been investigated on charges such as "denigrating Turkishness" or "insulting Islam" in an effort to sow self-censorship. Explore Life Stories, Offer Condolences & Send Flowers. The region is home to Eurasian wildlife such as the Eurasian sparrowhawk, golden eagle, eastern imperial eagle, lesser spotted eagle, Caucasian black grouse, red-fronted serin, and wallcreeper. Between 1959 and 2011 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 2400 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations on issues such as Kurdish rights, women's rights, LGBT rights, and media freedom. Learn more about syndication and FeedBurner... FeedBurner delivers the world's subscriptions wherever they need to go. Many natural gas pipelines span the country's territory. [518], Yeşilçam is the sobriquet that refers to the Turkish film art and industry. In time, Turkish women began to appear on stage, which was an important development in the late Ottoman society. Not all were ethnic Turks; some were Muslim Albanians, Bosniaks, Greek Muslims, Muslim Serbs, Macedonian Muslims and Bulgarian Muslims. [507] Edirne Province has hosted the annual Kırkpınar oil wrestling tournament since 1361, making it the oldest continuously held sporting competition in the world. [455] Public-sector funding covers approximately 75.2% of health expenditures. Each province is divided into districts (ilçe), for a total of 973 districts. Title: Half Author: Eli Lang Publisher: Riptide Cover Artist: G.D. Leigh Rating: 3.25 of 5 Stars Publication Date: 02/13/2017 Length: Novel (~ 50K-100K) Genre: Drama, Prism Book Alliance® would like to thank Alex Beecroft for stopping by today. [20] The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, who were largely responsible for the Empire's entry into World War I in 1914. Writer. [217], The human rights record of Turkey has been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. Join Prism Book Alliance® as Shae Connor goes Outside the Margins today. ), CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. [311] The public debt-to-GDP ratio peaked at 75.9 percent during the recession of 2001, falling to an estimated 26.9 percent by 2013.[312]. [246] In 2015 Turkey's media was rated as not free by Freedom House. [154][needs update], In the years of government by the AKP and Erdoğan, particularly since 2013, the independence and integrity of the Turkish judiciary has increasingly been said to be in doubt by institutions, parliamentarians and journalists both within and outside of Turkey; due to political interference in the promotion of judges and prosecutors, and in their pursuit of public duty. Turkey has signed but not ratified global agreements on reducing greenhouse gas emissions: the country has not yet ratified the Kigali Accord to regulate hydrofluorocarbons, and is one of the few countries that have not ratified the Paris agreement on climate change. 960 Followers, 59 Following, 174 Posts - See Instagram photos and videos from Greg Tremblay (@gtremblayvoice) [274] Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures often above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Following the publication of Ünver's book subsequent studies were published, including a 1978 study by a historian named Bahaettin Ögel about the Central Asian origins of Turkish cuisine. The Eastern Orthodox Church has been headquartered in Constantinople (Istanbul) since the First Council of Constantinople in 381 AD. [406] Non-denominational Muslims have been estimated to range from 2%[407] to 14% of the population. [487][488], Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine. The diversity of Turkey's fauna is even greater than that of its flora. [457][458] Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be a "modern" Western state, while maintaining traditional religious and historical values. Music of Turkey includes mainly Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music. [435] The Association of Atheism (Ateizm Derneği), the first official atheist organisation in the Balkans or Middle East, was founded in 2014. [75] Historically, the Rumelia Eyalet and Anatolia Eyalet had formed the administrative core of the Ottoman Empire, with their governors titled Beylerbeyi participating in the Sultan's Divan, so the loss of all Balkan provinces beyond the Midye-Enez border line according to the London Conference of 1912–13 and the Treaty of London (1913) was a major shock for the Ottoman society and led to the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état. Yüzyış ve XX. [19] In an effort to consolidate the weakening empire, Mahmud II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century. [474], The architecture of the Seljuk Turks combined the elements and characteristics of the Turkic architecture of Central Asia with those of Persian, Arab, Armenian and Byzantine architecture. Restaurant familiales grillade aux feux de bois [469] [451] Turkey is a member of the European Higher Education Area and actively participates in the Bologna Process. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I would evolve over the next 200 years into the Ottoman Empire. In 1948 both countries were included in the Marshall Plan and the OEEC for rebuilding European economies. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians c. 2000–1700 BC. [131] The Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. Easy ordering, quickly filled, quickly shipped, order correct. Turkey is divided into seven geographical regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. [274] Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually melts in no more than a few days. [273], The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. [282][283][284], Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are banking, construction, home appliances, electronics, textiles, oil refining, petrochemical products, food, mining, iron and steel, and machine industry. [223][224] A full-scale insurgency began in 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. The reforms aimed to transform the old religion-based and multi-communal Ottoman constitutional monarchy into a Turkish nation state that would be governed as a parliamentary republic under a secular constitution. [467] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic literature during most of the Ottoman era. [274] Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) can occur in eastern Anatolia. [247] In its resolution "The functioning of democratic institutions in Turkey" on 22 June 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe warned that "recent developments in Turkey pertaining to freedom of the media and of expression, erosion of the rule of law and the human rights violations in relation to anti-terrorism security operations in south-east Turkey have (...) raised serious questions about the functioning of its democratic institutions."[248]. [495] The Turkish national football team has won the bronze medal at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup and UEFA Euro 2008.[496]. [170], The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy was the country's long-standing strategic alliance with the United States. In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. European Turkey comprises 3 percent of the country's territory. Walker Publisher: Blue Heart Press Cover Artist: Harper By Design Rating: 4.25 of 5 Stars Publication Date: 02/18/2017 Length: Novel (~, Prism Book Alliance® would like to thank Joe Cosentino for stopping by today. [326][327] As well as Turkish Airlines, flag carrier of Turkey since 1933, several other airlines operate in the country. [12][17][18] From the late 18th century onwards, the empire's power declined with a gradual loss of territories and wars. Awards: 2015 Queer Ideas Screenplay Development Series (Toronto) "THE DEVIL'S TAIL" 2014 Female Eye Film Festival (Toronto) Official Selection Laurel in Screenwriting: "GOING BEYOND VIOLET" AKA "THE RIVER de CHUTE KIDNAPPING CASE" 2012 Moondance International F [13] Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family:[32] and, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. [38] Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BC. [426] The 1942-44 wealth tax for non-Muslims, the emigration of a portion of Turkish Jews to Israel after 1948, and the ongoing Cyprus dispute, which damaged relations between Turkish Muslims and Christians (culminating in the Istanbul pogrom of 6–7 September 1955), were other important events that contributed to the decline of Turkey's non-Muslim population. [221] The Kurdistan Workers' Party (designated a terrorist organisation by Turkey, the United States,[101] the European Union[102] and NATO[103]) was founded in 1978 by a group of Kurdish militants led by Abdullah Öcalan, seeking the foundation of an independent, Marxist-Leninist state in the region, which was to be known as Kurdistan. Autonomous utilities have been created in the 16 metropolitan cities of Turkey and cost recovery has been increased, thus providing the basis for the sustainability of service provision. The percentage of Christians in Turkey fell from 17.5% (three million followers) in a population of 16 million to 2.5% percent in the early 20th century. The Ottomans successfully defended the Dardanelles strait during the Gallipoli campaign (1915–1916) and achieved initial victories against British forces in the first two years of the Mesopotamian campaign, such as the Siege of Kut (1915–1916); but the Arab Revolt (1916–1918) turned the tide against the Ottomans in the Middle East. Other important movements in Turkish painting were the "Yeniler Grubu" (The Newcomers Group) of the late 1930s; the "On'lar Grubu" (Group of Ten) of the 1940s; the "Yeni Dal Grubu" (New Branch Group) of the 1950s; and the "Siyah Kalem Grubu" (Black Pen Group) of the 1960s. [110][111] In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2020.